History of the Printed Circuit Board

Published / by Paige Chen

We use printed circuit board every day through electronic devices such as smartphones, LED televisions, digital clocks, HVAC systems, and computers. All devices, powered by electricity or any source of electrical current, require PCB to work properly and efficiently. People invented the board as early as the 1920s but the look of the PCB we know today came out during the 1940s. Since then, manufacturers, scientists, and engineers introduced many developments that make today’s PCBs more efficient and durable.

The Past

In the 1920s, Charles Ducas filed a patent on the use of insulators to bolt wirings and generate the flow of current on the devices. He developed the concept of using conductive inks and printing the circuitry on the wiring board. Most often, the application of early PCBs was on radio devices, and military equipment.

PCB Design

The materials used for manufacturing the earliest PCB were Masonite, layered paperboard and thin wood planks. Back then, people drilled holes and pinned flat wires on the board. The material component of wires was brass. As long as a person could attach wirings on the holes of a board, it could pass as such, a circuit board. However, the materials used required constant replacement, bulky sockets and were prone to error.

During those times, a PCB looked bulky, heavy and most of the time failed to perform its functions, that is to direct the flow of the current to the appropriate parts. Many scientists and engineers attempted to apply the concept of Ducas but the outcome was not reliable until Eisler. The year 1943 marked the start of the PCB that we recognize today. Dr. Paul Eisler received the credits for being the first person to make a printed circuit board work. After the success of Eisler, many engineers and scientists adopted his concept and developed other materials for fabricating PCBs.

The Present

We now use different materials in manufacturing the PCBs. These materials range from the cheapest types to the most expensive ones. These can be resins, modified epoxy, phenolic, polyimide or fiberglass. These materials have dielectric properties and we use these because of their poor conductivity. The most popular type of the laminate board is the FR4. The most efficient one is the laminates made from fiberglass or glass due to its high resistance to heat and very poor electric conductivity. However, these materials are also the most expensive ones.

The Future

PCB Due to the constant demand for smaller and more sophisticated PCB, many manufacturers are still in the pursuit of making this a possibility. Many of them spend thousands and even millions of dollars on research and development for finding the best kinds of printed circuit board. Despite the current technology in fabrication, the PCB is still prone to electrical breakdowns, two to three years from its production.

We are not certain if the future of the PCB is a flexible type, which allows manufacturers to create the smallest PCB ever made. For the meantime, the PCBs are still the green one (sometimes red or golden yellow) you see on your electronic device. They are made from modified epoxy or glass.

The Issues

Many issues have arisen since people discovered the convenience of using PCB. One of the issues that manufacturers often encounter is the use of chemicals. The manufacturing process of the PCBs requires the use of hazardous chemicals, which puts people to certain health risks such as cancer. Although the probability of developing cancer has not yet been established, many community groups often batter these manufacturers to find a safer method than the current ones of fabricating the printed circuit board.

Despite the issues, we know that the PCB industry will remain the highest contributor to the economy. As the technology advances, a lot of people will demand faster, more efficient home and commercial grade electronic devices. We will continue to deliver excellent printed circuit boards to our consumers.

Different Properties Of Golf Balls

Published / by William Hawks

If you’re shopping for golf balls, let Rockbottomgolf be your guide. And to help you decide which type of ball to use, here are two of the most important considerations to look into: construction and spin.


The construction of your golf ball greatly influences the way it reacts when it comes into contact with the club. Balls can be made of one-piece, two-piece, three-piece, four-piece or five-piece.


Golf ballOne-piece balls are the most basic and made predominantly for beginners and on driving ranges. These balls are typically made from a compact Surlyn piece with dimples molded in. They are durable and have a soft feel to them when hit. One-piece balls are also the most inexpensive to produce. They are, however, rarely used as playing balls due to their low compression.


Two-piece balls are used by most golfers because they combine durability with full distance. These balls often have hard plastic, solid core, which is usually a high-energy resin or acrylate. This core is enclosed in a tough, cut-proof cover that gives them the ability to achieve greater distance compared to other balls. Two-piece golf balls provide a firmer feel but aren’t as easily controlled as softer balls. They are almost indestructible and have a high rolling distance, making them a popular choice among everyday golfers.


Three-piece balls are made either with a liquid or a solid rubber core. They are softer than one-piece and two-piece balls and they spin more, which means you will have more control over the placement and flight of your ball. Manufacturers often add extra layers to the ball to allow the players to create more spin separation. The more layers a golf ball has, the more customized the performance will be.


The properties of four-piece golf balls are relatively similar to those of three-piece balls, but with better control and feel. Each piece or layer in a four-piece ball serves a specific purpose. These layers work collectively to provide the softest feeling, longest hitting golf ball.

Taylormade Golf

The first layer of the ball, which is the inner core, is made with a solid rubber that is chiefly designed to provide great distances. The inner core is followed by the inner cover, the layer that is purported to transfer energy to the hot core, coming from the strike.

The next layer is the middle cover. This layer aims to increase the distance while creating mid iron feel and spin around the field. Finally, the outer cover provides the feel of the ball itself. It is the thinnest layer and usually contains 300 to 400 dimples.


Five-piece balls are the most recent advancement in golf ball design. They can also use more layers and materials to provide better performance benefits and more spin separation. These balls typically feature 3 mantle layers which are sandwiched between a soft urethane cover and a high-speed core. Each layer of the mantle responds to different swing speeds and shots in an attempt to create the most optimized performance possible. Although the most expensive, five-piece golf balls provide the highest, professional-level performance.


This property of balls allows players to achieve the greatest control possible for each shot by reducing the degree to which the golf ball spins when struck. Balls can have low, mid, or high spin capability.

Low Spin

Golf ClubsA golf ball with low spin has the tendency to reduce the side spin of each of your shots, and this allows for a straighter ball flight. Although the ball does not travel far into the air, it will have an increased roll when it lands due to the lack of spin. If you’re the kind of player that slices the ball or has difficulty finding distance on the green, then a low spinning ball is most suitable for you.

Mid Spin

Mid spinning balls bridge the gap between low and high spinning golf balls. They give solid distance with different softness and feel (depending on the brand) and are aimed towards a wide range of golfers. Most major manufacturers produce mid spinning balls as they believe these are suitable for most golf players.

High Spin

High spinning balls are designed to improve the spin of the ball while in flight. When you hit a golf ball, it will be released into the open air with a particular degree of back spin. A golf ball with high spin will increase that back spin and produce an extended carry. If you’re a player that strikes the ball from right to left and with a draw, this may be the right ball for you.

By determining what your usual tasks on the green are and choosing a golf ball that is designed to help you achieve such tasks, you can be well on your way towards becoming a competent golfer that everyone will take as a serious and tough competition.

The Benefits You Reap From Motivational-Speaker-Success

Published / by Ruth Harmon

Motivation is essential in any person’s life. It drives people. It influences their behaviors, and it keeps them going until they achieve their goals. Motivation enables you to work for things you want to accomplish in your personal life. In work, motivation allows employees to set and embrace goals and focus their energies into reaching those goals. Highly motivated employees are essential to a thriving business.

Hiring speakers who can provide motivational-speaker-success helps to infuse vigor and focus into your organization and employees.

It allows your organization to enjoy significant benefits.

• Provides Inspiration

Motivational speakerMotivational-speaker-success makes your employees see work and relationships from a fresh perspective. It makes them realize that what they do matters to the company. It inspires them to do well in their jobs.

An effective motivational speaker makes people feel more positive about themselves, their jobs and their relationships. He can inspire people to become happier and more productive in what they do. He provides inspiration from his own life experiences. He enables participants to draw insights from these experiences and to relate these realizations to their own personal goals, and to the goals of the company, as well.

• Develops Knowledge and Skills

Motivational-speaker-success makes it possible for employees to deepen their knowledge and develop or enhance important skills. After attending a seminar or workshop, they bring with them take-away information and tools to make them better workers and more enlightened individuals.

When you choose a motivational speaker, make sure to choose one who can tailor a program according to the specific needs of your people and organization. He should be capable of drawing on his own experiences and tailor-fit his presentation so that the participants can relate to the insights he shares with them.

• Allows Dynamic Change to Happen

Keynote speakerAdapting to change enables an organization to stay dynamic and productive. However, not all people are open to change. It takes a vibrant, highly persuasive and innovative motivational speaker to help introduce change to your organization. He can help make people embrace change – to see it not as a threat, but as an effective means to make things better.

• Improves Morale and Attitudes

There are many things that affect an individual’s morale. Some of these things may have no basis in fact, but they still have negative consequences where morale is concerned. Gossip about a pending layoff – whether true or not – is likely to result in a toxic work environment. A boss who is perceived as unaccommodating, unappreciative and non-supportive may likewise cause morale to take a nose dive.

Getting a motivational speaker is an effective way to get to the root of negative attitudes, thresh out problems and work out solutions. It helps workers view their roles and work responsibilities from a fresh perspective. It restores confidence, renews passion for work, and reinvigorates people to work more single-mindedly to reach shared goals.

• Promotes Fresh Ideas

Motivational speakersYour team may be hard-put to come up with fresh ideas and new creative concepts. This slump can cause a ripple effect that affects employee morale, sales, and customer service. You may find your profits sliding. You may lose your competitive advantage.

Many organizations find that taking time out with a motivational speaker can prove effective in overcoming the dearth of ideas. Motivational-speaker-success often results to providing a setting, which inspires employees to draw on their expertise, share ideas and translate these thoughts into actionable solutions.

Leaders are constantly searching for means and ways to inspire their team. They think of perks to help boost productivity, read books on effective supervision and attend management workshops to help them achieve this goal.

We can help you develop teamwork and help you reach your organizational objectives by providing effective leadership and employee development and motivational training programs customized to your organization. Log on to motivational-speaker-success.com to find out how we can help you reach your company’s goals.

Essential Qualities of a Good Article Writer

Published / by Sherri Hubbard

Content writers take all their readers to a new world full of descriptions and imaginations. It’s amazing to know how they do it but basically, they just do it by using their brains and other tools to write such as pen, paper or a laptop. While all writers have their own crafty way of writing articles, one sure thing is that they share common characteristics for coming up with good-quality written works. Here are the essential qualities that every article writer should have:

  1. homeEfficiency. There are others who write in the office but usually, writers work alone at their most convenient time and place. By writing alone conveniently, it’s easier for them to accomplish the task and to continue a day filled with lots of article writing. To come up with good quality articles, they should be focused and efficient in writing. In order to do this, they must not wait for the right moods. Their minds should know that they must get down to work. Apart from this, they must also learn to eliminate distractions at home or any place where they work to finish a particular article. Writers who lack this quality will most likely have a fruitless writing career ahead of them.
  2. Research skills. Every content writer should keep in mind that it’s not just about writing but reading and researching as well. Of course, creative writers always work hard on coming up with as much fictitious details as possible but they should also be engaged in researching to make the pieces believable to readers. For instance, when writing historical fictions, writers must do research on time periods for an accurate and detailed setting of sequences in the story. Similarly, they should also research all the physical places where the story will take place. Acquiring all the necessary details is essential in order to paint authentic pictures of fictitious places in the minds of the readers.
  3. Sticking to the schedule. Since most writers are not observed and managed in the office, it’s essential for them to set deadlines and follow time schedules. A successful article writer is always committed to make self-imposed writing deadlines and goals. This thinking makes a successful writer become more productive in every writing endeavor he’s in.
  4. Imagination. In order to come up with interesting contents, writers must develop a creative imagination. There are a lot of ways on how to bolster one’s imaginative skills in writing but for some writers who already possess pre-existing abilities of being inventive and imaginative, that is already a gift.
  5.  Confidence. Producing creative contents can be scary. Why? It’s still uncertain if these contents will be appealing to the readers or not. However, writers should keep in mind that writing contents, itself, is already a risk so why think about the safe path? In order to become a great content writer, it’s important to let go and take risks. Bravely write down all the ideas in mind. Revision can done after, anyways. For all the writers who don’t have the willingness to set aside all their worries for the sake of writing, then this career is not for them.
  6.  little 3d characterAbility to accept criticisms constructively. A good article writer doesn’t get mad or annoyed when other writers correct and criticize his works. Instead, he puts aside his ego, accepts the feedback or analysis and uses it to improve his writing. This quality might be hard to achieve but eventually, it can be developed over time.
  7. Always strives for flexibility and clarity. A good article writer could also adapt to various writing styles without sacrificing the clarity of the contents. He always avoids using complex sentences, specific jargons and clichés. He also knows how to start strong and end strong.

To become a successful content writer, it’s not just important to keep all these essential qualities in mind. Application and the willingness to embrace these qualities are the keys.